‘Liberty or death’ rallied colonists to war
With the possible exception of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, perhaps no historical event stirs the imagination or fires the patriotism of schoolchildren as does Patrick Henry's "Liberty or Death" speech.
But while Revere's ride was important, Henry's speech in 1775 was a genuine turning point in American history, providing the impetus that helped set the colonies on the road to revolution.
Delivered at St. John's Church in what was then Henrico Parish, the speech rallied a crowd that was inclined to delay confrontation with Great Britain and convinced the members to approve Henry's call to arms.
"Henry combined an actor's flair with a preacher's fervor," writes Henry Mayer in his biography of Henry, A Son of Thunder. "[A]nd he evoked a rapport with ordinary folks that changed the face of Virginia's – and later, America's – politics."
Less than a month after the speech, the "shot heard round the world" was fired at Lexington, Mass. Thanks in no small part to Henry, the Virginians had a militia organized and stood ready to lead the colonies in the fight for independence.
Because of Henry's speech, St. John's Church (now located within the City of Richmond) is today a National Historic Landmark and a treasured symbol of the birth of American liberty. And as Henrico Parish – like Henrico County – marks its 400th anniversary this year, St. John's will welcome an estimated 40,000 visitors into the church to view the hallowed site of Henry's address to the Second Virginia Convention.
Guests who are fortunate enough to visit during one of the popular re-enactment programs will have the opportunity to hear the immortal words spoken as Patrick Henry might have spoken them, and to experience for themselves the electrifying effect that Henry had on the crowd in 1775 – an effect that ranks the "Liberty or Death" speech No. 3 on the Henrico Citizen's list of the most significant events in Henrico's 400-year history.
Preaching to the choir
Patrick Henry developed his oratorical skills at a young age, and in an unlikely venue: atop the driver's seat of a carriage.
As a teenager, Henry drove his mother and sisters in the carriage to Polegreen Church, where they heard the preaching of the gifted orator Samuel Davies.
On the long carriage rides back from Polegreen, Henry's mother – a devout follower of Reverend Davies – would demand that young Patrick repeat the substance of his sermons. Henry studied Davies' rhetoric intently and adopted much of his style; years later, he told his biographer that Davies was the greatest speaker he had ever heard and
that Davies had taught him what it was to be an orator.
After he became a lawyer, Henry began earning a reputation not only for oratory, but also for his resistance to British rule. Elected to the House of Burgesses in 1765, he led the opposition to the Stamp Act and proposed Virginia's Stamp Act Resolutions.
Author and scholar Jon Kukla, who is working on a book about Henry and the revolution, points out that Patrick Henry was denouncing the king as a tyrant at least a decade before the likes of Adams, Jefferson or even Thomas Paine had spoken out publicly.
"Without Henry’s leadership in Virginia," says Kukla, "the American colonies would not have united in opposition to the Stamp Act."
‘Let me be buried’
As preparations for the Second Virginia Convention got underway in 1775, tensions between Virginia and Great Britain were worsening, and delegates decided to move the meeting from Williamsburg to the Henrico Parish Church to avoid interference from Governor Dunmore.
Henry presented resolutions to mobilize for military action, but the more cautious House members preferred a wait-and-see attitude. After listening to a number of arguments for delay, Henry took the floor seeking to dispel any notion that the colonists could still achieve peace through submission to the crown.
The war had already begun, Henry told his audience, which included such notables as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Richard Henry Lee.
“Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?” he concluded. "Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
According to accounts of the event, the speech initially met with stunned silence. But William Wirt, who wrote the first biography of Henry, notes that the speech was also followed by cries of, "To arms! To arms!"
It was Wirt who collected oral testimony from convention eyewitnesses and reconstructed the speech as we know it today. But because Wirt's biography was published in 1817, some historians have expressed doubt about the speech's accuracy.
While Kukla acknowledges that there was no stenographer present to transcribe the speech, he points out that the ideas expressed are clearly in line with thoughts and opinions that Henry had voiced before.
What's more, says Kukla, "People in that time had a much better capacity to memorize and retain speeches like that." Listeners were deeply affected by the speech as well, and therefore more likely to take the words to heart or commit them to memory.
"On the whole," says Kukla, "I'm one of the historians inclined to regard it as a good approximation. That's as close as you're going to get in an era that didn't have tape recorders."
Among the deeply affected listeners was a young delegate named Edward Carrington, who was unable to get a seat inside the church due to the multitudes that flocked to St. John's and surrounded the building hoping to hear the debate. Carrington maneuvered his way to an open window, however, and was able to hear Henry's declaration.
As the closing words rang out, Carrington was so overcome with emotion that he exclaimed, "Let me be buried at this spot!"
After his death in 1810, Carrington's family adhered to his wish.
"That tells us," Kukla says, "how much impact the speech had."
The first American?
Centuries before the advent of television, "liberty or death" quickly became the sound bite of its era. The phrase was immensely popular, says Kukla, and even was adopted as a motto by militiamen in Culpeper, who inscribed it on their flag along with the "Don't Tread on Me" rattlesnake.
In modern times, the phrase has served as a mantra for revolutionary movements in countries around the globe; in 1989, for example, it was displayed by Chinese students on a bed sheet in Tiananmen Square.
In the immediate aftermath of the speech, Henry's remarks predicting that the "next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms" turned out to be remarkably prescient. Within the month, Great Britain moved to disarm the rebellious colonists, conducting raids on powder magazines in Massachusetts and, three days later, in Virginia.
Kukla does not find it at all surprising that Henry predicted the conflict in Lexington. "He very frequently, at these critical times, had his finger on the pulse of events," says Kukla, citing the Stamp Act speech and Henry's earlier Parson's Cause speech.
When Henry responded to Lord Dunmore's raid on the Williamsburg magazine by leading a force of 500 militia to reclaim the powder, Lord Dunmore issued a proclamation declaring that “Patrick Henry . . . and his deluded Followers” were outlaws and rebels.
While Patrick Henry enjoyed many distinctions, Kukla likes to point out that Dunmore's proclamation conferred an honor that often goes unrecognized: Henry was the first American formally accused of rebellion. In other words, says Kukla, we can in one sense consider Henry the first American.
It would be another year, notes Kukla, before the Second Continental Congress would reach a unanimous vote for independence. But the war actually began that summer of 1775, with the uprisings at Bunker Hill. And the resistance, says Kukla, had begun well before that – with Patrick Henry and Virginia at the thrust of it.
If not for the support of leaders such as Henry, beginning with the Stamp Act in 1765, the northern colonies could not have held on during the pre-revolution decade, says Kukla. The British could have easily isolated New England, he believes, and stopped the revolution in its tracks.
"Patrick Henry stood at the heart of the American resistance to king and parliament that gave birth to the American Revolution," says Kukla.
And Henry's speech, which Kukla calls "a pivotal moment in the transition from peaceful resistance to the Revolutionary War," did not merely inspire a single revolution or war for independence. As indicated on the St. John's Church Foundation website, the "liberty or death" legacy continues to inspire revolutionary movements in far-flung places and modern times.
"[Henry's] phrase," the website notes, "remains as recognizable today as 'I have a dream' or 'Four score and seven years ago.'"
Event will help kick of Marine Corps' 'Toys for Tots' campaign
All 140 A.C. Moore locations will serve as drop-off centers this year for the Marine Toys for Tots Foundation, and all toys collected will stay in the local communities served by the stores in which they are donated.
On Saturday, Nov. 15, the Willow Lawn location will kick off the month-long program by hosting a "Make & Take" craft event for kids. Children ages six and older will be able to make a craft and take it home with them. Representatives from the Marines will be in-store to teach customers about the Toys for Tots program. A.C. Moore team members will be on site to help with the crafts. > Read more.
Citizen Staff Reports 11/12/2014
Commonwealth Catholic Charities is in desperate need of food donations for its community food pantry that serves the region’s low-income families, according to officials with the Henrico-based nonprofit.
After moving into its new location this past summer, the agency has dedicated a larger space for the pantry but the shelves are practically empty.
“As we head into the holidays and the weather turns colder, the need for food becomes even more critical, but unfortunately our cupboards are nearly bare,” said Jay Brown, the agency’s director for the division of housing services. “Donations of food will allow us help provide.” > Read more.
More than 1,000 volunteers from throughout the region gathered last month as part of HandsOn Greater Richmond to complete more than 60 projects.
The event is a program of the Partnership for Nonprofit Excellence.
In Henrico, a group of Target employees (pictured) undertook a project at Fairfield Middle School to help re-plant the school's community garden and paint the outdoor shelter. > Read more.
For our Top 10 calendar events this weekend, click here! > Read more.
Animated ‘Book of Life’ overcomes average storyline with extraordinary presentation, details
“Beauty is only skin deep” applies all too well to The Book of Life. An animated feature from first-time director Jorge R. Gutierrez, The Book of Life spins a classic love triangle – two childhood friends, Manolo (Diego Luna) and Joaquin (Channing Tatum) both in love with Maria (Zoe Saldana).
Maria, in all honesty, is a little more interested in Manolo’s musical charms, but her father wants her to marry the boastful and militaristic Joaquin. And when two gods, La Muerte and Xibalba (Kate de Castillo and Ron Perlman, respectively), turn this little love triangle into a wager (as gods often do), Manolo’s quest for true love will take him through life, death, immortality and the underworlds of Mexican folklore.
Now, back to the “beauty” part – because as far as the visuals go, The Book of Life is the most extraordinary animated film to hit theaters this year. > Read more.
The holiday season is underway and Lakeside Avenue has everything you need during its 10th annual Holly Jolly Christmas event! Shoppers will enjoy extended hours at several dozen shops and free trolley rides. Also this weekend, the 23rd annual Great American Indian Exposition & Pow-Wow. There will be over 200 American Indian dancers, singers, drummers, artists and crafters. In the mood for music? Check out The Gibson Brothers at UR and Susan Greenbaum at the Shady Grove Coffeehouse. For all our top picks this weekend, click here! > Read more.
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