Hasty surrender leaves a lasting legacy
Surrender of the City of Richmond ranks No. 20 on Henrico history list
It was with no small amount of trepidation that Richmond mayor Joseph Mayo set out toward Osborne Turnpike in Eastern Henrico County at daybreak on April 3, 1865.
The day before, as Confederate lines around Petersburg continued to dissolve in the face of Union assaults, Gen. Robert E. Lee had sent a message to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. “I think it is absolutely necessary that we should abandon our position tonight,” wrote Lee.
Receiving the message while at Sunday worship, Davis slipped quietly out of church, and evacuation plans began. Troops were told to set fire to all cotton, tobacco, and munitions warehouses to keep them from falling into Federal hands. The city council appointed a committee to accompany Mayor Mayo on an impromptu carriage ride so that he could surrender to Union forces east of Richmond.
Unfortunately, Mayo didn’t know who was in command of those forces.
As Nelson Lankford tells the story in his book Richmond Burning: The Last Days of the Confederate Capital, Mayo went in search of the Union commander with only a vaguely addressed document bearing the words “The General Commanding the Army of the United States in front of the City of Richmond.”
Mayo could only hope that by the time he reached the line of trenches along Osborne Turnpike, about two miles out, he would find the commander and complete his errand.
Meanwhile, outside the city, Federal troops had spotted smoke rising over Richmond and discovered empty tents abandoned by Confederates in withdrawal. Major Atherton Stevens prepared to march into town, leading a detachment of about 40 men from the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry up Osborne Turnpike.
Near the junction of the turnpike with New Market Road, Stevens met the mayor’s carriage, and Mayo handed him the surrender note near a tree that still stands today. The act ranks No. 20 on the Henrico Citizen’s list of the most significant moments in Henrico history.
“A native of Cambridge, Mass., Stevens had turned 39 the day before,” writes Lankford. “Receiving the note surrendering the Confederate capital was a welcome belated birthday present.” Stevens accepted the note and told the mayor that he would forward it to his commander, Maj. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel.
“Imagine Mayo’s relief,” wrote Lankford, “when Stevens assured him that the U.S. Army intended to protect the people and property.”
As the mayor and his escorts returned to the city, Stevens and his party also continued toward Richmond by way of Rocketts Landing, where President Abraham Lincoln would land next day. Not far behind rode General Weitzel and his staff.
Only 30 years old himself, Weitzel had attended West Point during the time that Robert E. Lee was superintendent of the Academy and had spent many an hour at Lee’s home there. Having given the order that his brigade was to lead the division into the city, Weitzel passed ahead of his infantry columns along Osborne Turnpike – to loud cheers from the troops.
For days afterwards, Lankford wrote, the hot topic in northern newspapers was which Union regiment reached Richmond first. Some accounts said that soldiers from the U.S. Colored Troops headed the columns entering the city.
Thomas Chester, an African American journalist who marched with the USCT, supported the claims of black troops who said they were first over the city line. In Washington, Gen. Benjamin Butler told a crowd it that it was “divine retribution” that black soldiers were first to liberate Richmond.
Lankford, however, suspects that the colored troops, like everyone else, were halted while still on the outskirts of town.
“Despite the sense of poetic justice that story represented to many northerners,” he wrote, “it probably was exaggeration.”
Among the soldiers who paused at Tree Hill Farm (owned by Unionist Franklin Stearns) were members of the 12th New Hampshire Volunteers. From their perch above the city, they had a view of Richmond burning. Many of them – “aware that they were witnessing history in the making,” noted Lankford – took advantage of the wait to pen letters home.
“The sergeant wrote his on a sheet torn from a ledger book left by a Georgia regiment,” Lankford wrote. “His companions found a peacock and cut off its tail to send feathers home as mementos in their letters.”
At 8:15 a.m. at City Hall, Weitzel formally accepted the terms of surrender from Mayo. He ordered his troops to put out the fires, and, upon learning that Mrs. Lee was in her residence on Franklin St., sent a guard to protect her. His famous telegram, dispatched to General Ulysses S.Grant soon afterwards, began, “We entered Richmond at a quarter past eight this morning. . .”
Within hours, Lankford wrote, the first “tourists” appeared on the scene, steaming up the James from Norfolk and reaching Varina landing at dawn Tuesday. Leading the unauthorized visit was David Farragut, who brought several of his officers and their wives.
A number of souvenirs from the Jefferson Davis residence went home with the Norfolk party. But it was Emma Doane, wife of the ship’s purser, who apparently captured the biggest prize: the surrender note.
Long before the Civil War, Tree Hill already had been notable as one of the largest early plantations. During the post-Revolutionary War period it became a center of horse racing in the area and was visited by the Marquis de Lafayette in 1825.
With the surrender of Richmond, however, Tree Hill gained another measure of fame. As Lankford noted, “Although there were two surrenders, and the second one [at City Hall] was the formal ceremony, the more important event was the hurried surrender when Mayo rode out to meet Union soldiers east of the Capitol in Henrico.”
On Sept. 24, 2011, Henrico County will celebrate its 400th anniversary year with an encampment and exhibits at Tree Hill Farm, 6404 Osborne Turnpike. The event will include living history demonstrations and exhibits, and a ceremony to honor those who were Medal of Honor recipients for valor on Henrico soil. For details, visit Henrico400th.com.
With a nod to Arbor Day, Citizen seeks photos, descriptions of significant Henrico trees
Citizen Staff Reports 04/28/2015
Do you have a favorite tree in Henrico?
Do you know of a tree with an interesting story?
Do you live near an especially large, old, or otherwise unusual tree – or do you pass by one that has always intrigued you?
Arbor Day 2015 (April 24) was last week, and though the Citizen has published stories about a few special trees over the years (see sidebar) we know that our readers can lead us to more. > Read more.
Henrico's most famous tree, known as the Surrender Tree, still stood for more than a century near the intersection of Osborne Turnpike and New Market Road -- until June 2012.
It was in the shade of that tree on April 3, 1865, that Richmond mayor Joseph Mayo met Major Atherton Stevens and troops from the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry and handed over a note surrendering the city to Federal troops. Evacuation had already begun. > Read more.
The Greater Richmond ARC's annual Ladybug Wine Tasting and Silent Auction on April 11 netted $75,165 to benefit its Infant and Child Development Services (ICDS) program.
About 350 guests sampled fine West Coast wines and craft beer from Midnight Brewery at Richmond Raceway Complex's Torque Club, along with food from local eateries. Carytown Cupcakes provided dessert. > Read more.
In the mood for some spring shopping? Eastern Henrico FISH will hold their semi-annual yard sale this weekend – funds raised assist at-risk families in Eastern Henrico County. Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden will hold a spring plant sale which is among the largest in the region with more than 40 vendors selling plants ranging from well-known favorites to rare exotics. Put on your detective hat and find out “whodunnit” at the movie “Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows” and “The Case of the Dead Flamingo Dancer,” presented by the Henrico Theatre Company May 1-17. For all our top picks this weekend, click here! > Read more.
It’s that time of year – charity races are popping up everywhere! On Saturday, St. Joseph’s Villa will be the site of the sixth annual CASA Superhero Run and the fifth annual Richmond Free to Breathe Run/Walk will be held in Innsbrook. Also in Innsbrook, the 2015 Richmond Take Steps for Crohn’s and Colitis will take place on Sunday. If you’re more into relaxation than exercise, check out Wine for Cure’s Dogwood Wine Festival or the Troubadours Community Theatre Group’s production of “West Side Story” at the Henrico Theatre. For all our top picks this weekend, click here! > Read more.
There are several fun events this weekend taking place outside including the third annual Virginia Firefighter Games at Short Pump Town Center; Twin Hickory Park’s “April Showers: A Celebration of Spring” event; the Young Life Richmond West 5k in Innsbrook; and the Gold Festival on Broad which benefits Prevent Child Abuse Virginia. Fingers crossed for no rain! For all our top picks this weekend, click here! > Read more.
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